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We determined predictors of MCUFI use using multivariate logistic regression.Overall, 3% percent of adults used a MCUFI within the preceding month. Overall MCUFI use increased between 1999-20-2010 (P value for trend In this nationally representative sample, reported use of prescription medications commonly used for insomnia (MCUFIs) within the preceding month was common, particularly among older adults and those seeing a mental health provider, with high use of sedative polypharmacy among MCUFI users.We defined MCUFI use as use of any of the following medications in the preceding month: benzodiazepine receptor agonists (eszopiclone, zaleplon, zolpidem, estazolam, flurazepam, quazepam, temazepam, triazolam), barbiturates (amobarbital, amobarbitalsecobarbital, chloral hydrate), doxepin, quetiapine, ramelteon, and trazodone.We estimated prevalence of MCUFI use and concurrent use of another sedating medication.Prescription medications classified as MCUFIs included nonbenzodiazepine benzodiazepine-receptor agonists or “Z-meds” (eszopiclone, zaleplon, zolpidem); benzodiazepines (estazolam, flurazepam, quazepam, temazepam, triazolam); barbiturates (amobarbital, amobarbital-secobarbital, chloral hydrate); doxepin; quetiapine; ramelteon; and trazodone.
As there were significant missing data for income (n = 2,403) and alcohol intake (n = 4,445) among participants included in the main model (n = 32,328), we performed multiple imputation by chained equations.: age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational level, imputed family income, marital status, insurance status, smoking status, imputed alcohol intake, physical activity level, self-reported health status, chronic medical conditions, having seen a mental health professional in past year, and use of other prescription sedative medication.
We additionally sought to define rates of sedating medication poly-pharmacy by investigating concurrent use of other medications with sedating properties.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is an in-person survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U. population, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).
Households are selected for face-to-face interviews in English and/or Spanish using a multistage probability sampling design.
Low-income persons, persons ≥ 60 years of age, African Americans, and persons of Mexican origin are oversampled.
Hence, our definition comprised a broad range of prescription medication categories, including antihistamines, antipsychotics, non-MCUFI barbiturates, non-MCUFI benzodiazepines, muscle relaxants, opioids, antiepileptic drugs, sedating antidepressants (e.g., tricyclic anti-depressants), and “sedatives-NOS” (see supplemental material for comprehensive list).