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The genomes of RNA viruses can be either single-stranded or double-stranded RNA, and may contain one or more separate RNA molecules.DNA viruses can have either single-stranded or double-stranded genomes.Watson, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA.Whereas a genome sequence lists the order of every DNA base in a genome, a genome map identifies the landmarks.Like the bacteria they originated from, mitochondria and chloroplasts have a circular chromosome.Unlike prokaryotes, eukaryotes have exon-intron organization of protein coding genes and variable amounts of repetitive DNA.The proportion of the genome occupied by coding sequences varies widely.
Some bacteria have auxiliary genetic material, which is carried in plasmids.
A fundamental step in the project was the release of a detailed genomic map by Jean Weissenbach and his team at the Genoscope in Paris.
Viral genomes can be composed of either RNA or DNA.
Just as a cookbook gives the instructions needed to make a range of meals including a holiday feast or a summer picnic, the human genome contains all the instructions needed to make the full range of human cell types including muscle cells or neurons.
A genome sequence is the complete list of the nucleotides (A, C, G, and T for DNA genomes) that make up all the chromosomes of an individual or a species.
A genome map is less detailed than a genome sequence and aids in navigating around the genome.